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Abstract


THE LEGAL LEGİSLATİON OF THE ORPHANS FUND AND THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED İN THE HİSTORICAL PROCESS (1851-1920)
The Ministry of Orphans and the Education Fund were established in 1851 in the Ottoman Empire. These organizations went through many changes in the historical process. These institutions ensured the protection of the social and economic rights of widows, orphans, mad, elderly and the ones in need of care. In this period, the state regarded the orphan issue as a social and economic phenomenon rather than a religious one. These institutions, which were originally only aimed at civilian citizens, expanded their fields of activity, including the widows and orphans of official government officials, upon the spread of social security, which began to be established since the mid-1860s. The Eytam Chests, which protected the economic rights of the orphans and evaluated the profits as an advantage towards the orphans, was in action for many years under the supervision of the Sheikhulislam and the monopoly of the administrative class. The tradesmen and farmers also profited from these chests in those years. But the biggest customer of these chests became the state in the years that followed. These chests, which could not renew themselves from the organization and financial perspective, could mainly protect the rights of its employees rather than the orphans in each period. The Eytam chests which operated through the real estates that were mortgaged failed to become a financial organization. The administrators who could not change the interest system which they applied, also showed resistance towards change. These chests were turned into a financial organization in 1926 and were converted as The Türkiye Estate and Eytam Bank. In this study, the organizational structure, the legal legislation and the problems encountered in the historical period of the Eytam Chests established in 1851 have been evaluated until 1920. Religious subjects were mainly discussed in the study made on orphans. The schools and orphanages established for orphans were also analysed. The sources related on the chests were mainly first hand sources. These are regulations, legislations, decrees and wills. Other archive sources were also used in this study.

Keywords
Orphan, Orpans (Eytam) Supervision (Leadership), Orpans Chests, Orpans Assembly, Non-Muslim Orpans C



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